This is a marriage contract between a priest named Pagosh and a female named Teteimhotep, from 172 BC in Assiut, Egypt.
Ancient Egypt had some of the best marriage laws for women in the ancient world. Although children were almost always the property of the father, ancient Egyptian women were allowed to initiate divorce (a real oddity) and were entitled to compensation upon the end of a marriage.
From the papyrus catalogue page:
This example is written on papyrus in demotic script. In the contract the husband agrees to pay a stipulated amount of money within thirty days in the event of divorce. […] On the reverse of the papyrus is a list of eight witnesses to the contract.
Usually, divorce is presented today as a negative aspect of society – i.e. we wonder why there are so many. But for as long as humans have been forming relationships with one another, we have also been trying to get out of some of those relationships. In a time where women had much less power than men, imagine your economic survival being dependent on your husband. Now imagine that husband wished to be married to someone else. In ancient times this would mean you could find yourself economically destitute and you had no rights to your children. The amount of money written in your marriage contract was a huge step forward in women’s rights.
Source: [British Museum]