The famous essay 95 Theses which sparked the Protestant Reformation, Lutheranism, and numerous religious wars, was written by the German ex-monk Martin Luther in 1517.
A fun fact about Luther? He suffered from constipation his whole life and would write that he spent long hours thinking in ‘cloaca’, i.e. in the bathroom. This means his essay may have been written in or thought up on the toilet.
Other fun facts about Luther: archaeologists have rifled through Luther’s garbage, Luther was 330lbs, and his wife was an ex-nun.